AVO-friendly processing gets called various things: true amplitude, amplitude-friendly, and controlled amplitude, controlled phase (or just 'CACP'). And, if you've been involved in any processing jobs you'll notice these phrases get thrown around a lot. But seismic geophysics has a dirty little secret... we don't know exactly what it is. Or, at least, we can't agree on it.
I can't compile a list of exactly which processes will harm your AVO analysis (can anyone? Has anyone??), but I think I can start a list of things that you need to approach with caution and skepticism:
- Anything that is not surface consistent. What does that mean? According to Oliver Kuhn (now at Quantec in Toronto):
Surface consistent: a shot-related [process] affects all traces within a shot gather in the same way, independent of their receiver positions, and, a receiver-related [process] affects all traces within a receiver gather in the same way, independent of their shot positions.
- Anything with a window — spatial or temporal. If you must use windows, make them larger or longer than your areas and zones of interest. In this way, relative effects should be preserved.
- Anything that puts the flattening of gathers before the accuracy of the data (<cough> trim statics). Some flat gathers don't look flat. (The thumbnail image for this post is from Duncan Emsley's essay in 52 Things.)
- Anything that is a sort of last resort, post hoc attempt to improve the data — what we might call 'cosmetic' treatments. Things like wavelet stretch correction and spectral shaping are good for structural interpreters, but not for seismic analysts. At the very least, get volumes without them, and convince yourself they did no harm.
- Anything of which people say, "This should be fine!" but offer no evidence.
Back to my fourth point there... spectral shaping and wavelet stretch correction (e.g. this patented technique I was introduced to at ConocoPhillips) have been the subject of quite a bit of discussion, in my experience. I don't know why; both are fairly easy to model, on the face of it. The problem is that we start to get into the sticky question of what wavelets 'see' and what's a wavelet anyway, and hang on a minute why does seismic reflection even work? Personally, I'm skeptical, especially as we get more used to, and better at, looking at spectral decompositions of stacked and pre-stack data.
I have seen people use seismic data with very different processing paths for structural interpretation and for AVO analysis. This can happen on long-term projects, where the structural framework depends on an old post-stack migration that was later reprocessed for AVO friendliness. This is a bad idea — you won't be able to put the quantitative results into the structural framework without introducing substantial error.
What we need is a clinical trial of processing algorithms, in which they are tested against a known model like Marmousi, and their effect on attributes is documented. If such studies exist, I'd love to hear about them. Come to think of it, this would make a good topic for a hackathon some day... Maybe Dallas 2016?