# Training digital scientists

Gulp. My first post in… a while. Life, work, chaos, ideas — it all caught up with me recently. I’ve missed the blog greatly, and felt a regular pang of guilt at letting it gather dust. But I’m back! The 200+ draft posts in my backlog ain’t gonna write themselves. Thank you for returning and reading this one.

Recently I wrote about our continuing adventures in training; since I wrote that post in April, we’ve taught another 166 people. It occurred to me that while teaching scientists to code, we’ve also learned a bit about how to teach, and I wanted to share that too. Perhaps you will be inspired to share your skills, and together we can have exponential impact.

### Wanting to get better

As usual, it all started with not knowing how to do something, doing it anyway, then wanting to get better.

We started teaching in 2014 as rank amateurs, both as coders and as teachers. But we soon discovered the ‘teaching tech’ subculture among computational scientists. In particular, we found Greg Wilson and the Software Carpentry movement he started. By that point, it had been around for many, many years. Incredibly, Software Carpentry has helped more than 34,000 researchers ‘go digital’. The impact on science can’t be measured.

Eager as ever, we signed up for the instructor’s course. It was fantastic. The course, taught by Greg Wilson himself, perfectly modeled the thing it was offering to teach you: “Do what I say, and what I do”. This is, of course, critically important in all things, especially teaching. We accepted the content so completely that I’m not even sure we graduated. We just absorbed it and ran with it, no doubt corrupting it on the way. But it works for us.

I should preface what follows by telling you that I haven’t taken any other courses on the subject of teaching. For all I know, there’s nothing new here. That said, I have never experienced a course like Greg Wilson’s, so either the methods he promotes are not widely known, or they’re widely ignored, or I’ve been really unlucky.

The easiest way to get Greg Wilson’s wisdom is probably to read his book-slash-website, Teaching Tech Together. (It’s free, but you can get a hard copy if you prefer.) It’s really good. You can get the vibe — and much of the most important advice — from the ten Teaching Tech Together rules laid out on the main page of that site (box, right).

As you can probably tell, most of it is about parking your ego, plus most of your knowledge (for now), and orientating everything — every single thing — around the learner.

If you want to go deeper, I also recommend reading the excellent, if rather academic, How Learning Works, by Susan Ambrose (Northeastern University) and others. It’s strongly research-driven, and contains a lot of great advice. In particular, it does a great job of listing the factors that motivate students to learn (and those that demotivate them), and spelling out the various ways in which students acquire mastery of a subject.

### How to practice

It goes without saying that you’ll need to teach. A lot. Not surprisingly, we find we get much better if we teach several courses in a short period. If you’re diligent, take a lot of notes and study them before the next class, maybe it’s okay if a few weeks or months go by. But I highly doubt you can teach once or twice a year and get good at it.

Something it took us a while to get comfortable with is what Evan calls ‘mistaking’. If you’re a master coder, you might not make too many mistakes (but your expertise means you will have other problems). If you’re not a master (join the club), you will make a lot of mistakes. Embracing everything as a learning opportunity is less awkward for you, and for the students — dealing with mistakes is a core competency for all programmers.

Reflective practice means asking for, and then acting on, student feedback — every day. We ask students to write it on sticky notes. Reading these back to the class the next morning is a good way to really read it. One of the many benefits of ‘never teach alone’ is always having someone to give you feedback from another teacher’s perspective too. Multi-day courses let us improve in real time, which is good for us and for the students.

• Keep the student:instructor ratio to no more than ten; seven or eight is better.

• Take a packet of orange and a packet of green Post-It notes. Use them for names, as ‘help me’ flags, and for feedback.

• When teaching programming, the more live coding — from scratch — you can do, the better. While you code, narrate your thought process. This way, students are able to make conections between ideas, code, and mistakes.

• To explain concepts, draw on a whiteboard. Avoid slides whenever possible.

• Our co-teacher John Leeman likes to say, “I just showed you something new, what questions do you have?” This beats “Any questions?” for opening the door to engagement.

• “No-one left behind” is a nice idea, but it’s not always practical. If students can’t devote 100% to the class and then struggle because of it, you owe it to the the others to politely suggest they pick the class up again next time.

• Devote some time to the practical application of the skills you’re teaching, preferably in areas of the participants’ own choosing. In our 5-day class, we devote a whole day to getting students started on their own projects.

• Don’t underestimate the importance of a nice space, natural light, good food, and frequent breaks.

• Recognize everyone’s achievement with a small gift at the end of the class.

• Learning is hard work. Finish early every day.

### Give it a try

If you’re interested in help people learn to code, the most obvious way to start is to offer to assist or co-teach in someone else’s class. Or simply start small, offering a half-day session to a few co-workers. Even if you only recently got started yourself, they’ll appreciate the helping hand. If you’re feeling really confident, or have been coding for a year or two at least, try something bolder — maybe offer a one-day class at a meeting or conference. You will find plenty of interest.

There are few better ways to improve your own skills than to teach. And the feeling of helping people develop a valuable skill is addictive. If you give it a try, let us know how you get on!

Comment

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# Feel superhuman: learning and teaching geocomputing

Diego teaching in Houston in 2018.

It’s five years since we started teaching Python to geoscientists. To be honest, it might have been premature. At the time, Evan and I were maybe only two years into serious, daily use of Python. But the first class, at the Atlantic Geological Society’s annual meeting in February 2014, was free so the pressure was not too high. And it turns out that only being a step or two ahead of your students can be an advantage. Your ‘expert blind spot’ is partially sighted not completely blind, because you can clearly remember being a noob.

Being a noob is a weird, sometimes very uncomfortable, even scary, feeling for some people. Many of us are used to feeling like experts, at least some of the time. Happy, feeling like a noob is a core competency in programming. Learning new things is a more or less hourly experience for coders. Even a mature language like Python evolves fast enough that it’s hard to keep up. Instead of feeling threatened or exhausted by this, I think the best strategy is to enjoy it. You’ll never be done, there are (way) more questions than answers, and you can learn forever!

One of the bootcamp groups at the Copenhagen hackathon in 2018

This week we’re teaching our 40th course. Last year alone we gave digital superpowers to 325 people, mostly geoscientists, Not all of them learned to code, as such — some people already could, and some found out theydidn’t like it… coding really isn’t for everyone. But I think all of them learned something new about technology, and how it can serve them and their science. I hope all of them look at spreadsheets, and Petrel, and websites differently now. I think most of them want, at some point, to learn more. And everyone is excited about machine learning.

### The expanding community of quantitative earth scientists

This year we’ve already spent 50 days teaching, and taught 174 people. Imagine that! I get emotional when I think about what these hundreds of new digital geoscientists and engineers will go and do with their new skills. I get really excited when I see what they are already doing — when they come to hackathons, send us screenshots, or write papers with beautiful figures. If the joy of sharing code and collaborating with peers has also rubbed off on them, there’s no telling where it could lead.

Matt teaching in Aberdeen in October 2018

The last nine months or so have been an adventure. Teaching is not supposed to be what Agile is about. We’re a consulting company, a technology company. But for now we’re mostly a training company — it’s where we’re needed. And it makes sense... Programming is fundamentally about knowledge sharing. Teaching is about helping, collaborating. It’s perfect for us.

Besides, it’s a privilege and a thrill to meet all these fantastically smart, motivated people and to hear about their projects and their plans. Sometimes I wish it didn’t mean leaving my family in Nova Scotia and flying to Houston and London and Kuala Lumpur and Kalamazoo… but mostly I wish we could do more of it. Especially when we get comments like these:

How many times have you felt superhuman at work recently?

The courses we teach are evolving and expanding in scope. But they all come back to the same thing: growing digital skills in our profession. This is critical because using computers for earth science is really hard. Why? The earth is weird. We’ve spent hundreds of years honing conceptual models, understanding deep time, and figuring out complex spatial relationships.

If data science eats the subsurface without us, we’re all going to get indigestion. Society needs to better understand the earth — for all sorts of reasons — and it’s our duty to build and adopt the most powerful analytical tools available so that we can help.

### Learning resources

If you can’t wait to get started, here are some suggestions:

Classroom courses are a big investment in dollars and time, but they can get you a long way really quickly. Our courses are built especially for subsurface scientists and engineers. As far as I know, they are the only ones of their kind. If you think you’d like to take one, talk to us, or look out for a public course. You can find out more or sign up for email alerts here >> https://agilescientific.com/training/

Last thing: I suggest avoiding DataCamp, because of sexual misconduct by an executive, compounded by total inaction, dishonest obfuscation, and basically failing spectacularly. Even their own trainers have boycotted them. Steer clear.

1 Comment

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# x lines of Python: Gridding map data

Difficulty rating: moderate.

Welcome to the latest in the X lines of Python series. You probably thought it had died, gawn to ‘eaven, was an x-series. Well, it’s back!

Today we’re going to fit a regularly sampled surface — a grid — to an irregular set of points in (x, y) space. The points represent porosity, measured in volume percent.

Here’s what we’re going to do; it all comes to only 9 lines of code!

1. Load the data from a text file (needs 1 line of code).

2. Compute the extents and then the coordinates of the new grid (2 lines).

3. Make a radial basis function interpolator using SciPy (1 line).

4. Perform the interpolation (1 line).

5. Make a plot (4 lines).

As usual, there’s a Jupyter Notebook accompanying this blog post, and you can run it right now without installing anything.

Run the accompanying notebook in MyBinder

Run the notebook in Google Colaboratory

### Just the juicy bits

The notebook goes over the workflow in a bit more detail — with more plots and a few different ways of doing the interpolation. For example, we try out triangulation and demonstrate using scikit-learn’s Gaussian process model to show how we might use kriging (turns out kriging was machine learning all along!).

If you don’t have time for all that, and just want the meat of the notebook, here it is:

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from scipy.interpolate import Rbf

sep=' ',
usecols=[0, 1, 2, 3],
names=['x', 'y', 'thick', 'por']
)

# Build a regular grid with 500-metre cells.
extent = x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max = [df.x.min()-1000, df.x.max()+1000,
df.y.min()-1000, df.y.max()+1000]
grid_x, grid_y = np.mgrid[x_min:x_max:500, y_min:y_max:500]

# Make the interpolator and do the interpolation.
rbfi = Rbf(df.x, df.y, df.por)
di = rbfi(grid_x, grid_y)

# Make the plot.
plt.figure(figsize=(15, 15))
plt.imshow(di.T, origin="lower", extent=extent)
cb = plt.scatter(df.x, df.y, s=60, c=df.por, edgecolor='#ffffff66')
plt.colorbar(cb, shrink=0.67)
plt.show()

This results in the following plot, in which the points are the original data, plotted with the same colourmap as the surface itself (so they should be the same colour, more or less, as their background).

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# Two new short courses in Calgary

We're running two one-day courses in Calgary for the CSPG Spring Education Week. One of them is a bit... weird, so I thought I'd try to explain what we're up to.

Both classes run from 8:30 till 4:00, and both of them cost just CAD 425 for CSPG members.

### Get introduced to Python

The first course is Practical programming for geoscientists. Essentially a short version of our 2 to 3 day Creative geocomputing course, we'll take a whirlwind tour through the Python programming language, then spend the afternoon looking at some basic practical projects. It might seem trivial, but leaving with a machine fully loaded with all the tools you'll need, plus long list of resources and learning aids, is worth the price of admission alone.

If you've always wanted to get started with the world's easiest-to-learn programming language, this is the course you've been waiting for!

### Hashtag geoscience

This is the weird one. Hashtag geoscience: communicating geoscience in the 21st century. Join me, Evan, Graham Ganssle (my co-host on Undersampled Radio) — and some special guests — for a one-day sci comm special. Writing papers and giving talks is all so 20th century, so let's explore social media, blogging, podcasting, open access, open peer review, and all the other exciting things that are happening in scientific communication today. These tools will not only help you in your job, you'll find new friends, new ideas, and you might even find new work.

I hope a lot of people come to this event. For one, it supports the CSPG (we're not getting paid, we're on expenses only). Secondly, it'll be way more fun with a crowd. Our goal is for everyone to leave burning to write a blog, record a podcast, or at least create a Twitter account.

One of our special guests will be young-and-famous geoscience vlogger Dr Chris. Coincidentally, we just interviewed him on Undersampled Radio. Here's the uncut video version; audio will be on iTunes and Google Play in a couple of days:

Comment

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# x lines of Python: synthetic wedge model

Welcome to a new blog series! Like the A to Z and the Great Geophysicists, I expect it will be sporadic and unpredictable, but I know you enjoys life's little nonlinearities as much as I.

The idea with this one — x lines of Python — is to share small geoscience workflows in x lines or fewer. I'm not sure about the value of x, but I think 10 seems reasonable for most tasks. If x > 10 then the task may have been too big... If x < 5 then it was probably too small.

Python developer Raymond Hettinger says that each line of code should be equivalent to a sentence... so let's say that that's the measure of what's OK to put in a single line.

### Synthetic wedge model

To kick things off, follow this link to a live Jupyter Notebook environment showing how you can make a simple synthetic three-rock wedge model in only 9 lines of code.

The sentences represented by the code that made the data in these images are:

1. Set up the size of the model.
2. Make the slanty bit, with 1's in the wedge and 2's in the base.
3. Add the top of the model as 0; these numbers will turn into rocks.
4. Define the velocity and density of rocks 0 to 2.
5. Distribute those properties through the model.
6. Calculate the acoustic impedance everywhere.
7. Calculate the reflection coefficients in the model.
8. Make a Ricker wavelet.
9. Convolve the wavelet with the reflection coefficients.

All of the notebooks we share in this series will be hosted on mybinder.org. I'm excited about this because it means you can run and edit them live, without installing anything at all. Give it a go right now.

You can see them on GitHub too, and fork or clone them from there. Note that if you look at the notebook for this post on GitHub, you'll be able to view it, but not change or run code unless you get everything running on your own machine. (To do that, you can more or less follow the instructions in my User Guide to the TLE tutorials).

Please do take this notion of x as 'par' as a challenge. If you'd like to try to shoot under par, please do — and share your efforts. Code golf is a fun way to learn better coding habits. (And maybe some bad ones.) There is a good chance I will shoot some bogies on this course.

We will certainly take requests too — what tasks would you like to see in x lines of Python?

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

On Tuesday I wrote about asking better questions. One of the easiest ways to ask better questions is to hang back a little. In a lecture, the answer to your question may be imminent. Even if it isn't, some thinking or research will help. It's the same with answering questions. Better to think about the question, and maybe ask clarifying questions, than to jump right in with "Let me explain".

Here's a slightly edited example from Earth Science Stack Exchange

I suppose natural gas underground caverns on Earth have substantial volume and gas is in gaseous form there. I wonder how it would look like inside such cavern (with artificial light of course). Will one see a rocky sky at big distance?

The first answer was rather terse:

### What is a good answer?

This answer, addressing the apparent misunderstanding the OP (original poster) has about gas being predominantly found in caverns, was the first thing that occurred to me too. But it's incomplete, and has other problems:

• It's not very patient, and comes across as rather dismissive. Not very welcoming for this new user.
• The reference is far from being an appropriate one, and seems to have been chosen randomly.
• It only addresses sandstone reservoirs, and even then only 'typical' ones.

In my own answer to the question, I tried to give a more complete answer. I tried to write down my principles, which are somewhat aligned with the advice given on the Stack Exchange site:

1. Assume the OP is smart and interested. They were smart and curious enough to track down a forum and ask a question that you're interested enough in to answer, so give them some credit.
2. No bluffing! If you find yourself typing something like, "I don't know a lot about this, but..." then stop writing immediately. Instead, send the question to someone you know that can give a better answer then you.
3. If possible, answer directly and clearly in the first sentence. I usually write it in bold. This should be the closest you can get to a one-word answer, especially if it was a direct question.
4. Illustrate the answer with an example. A picture or a numerical example — if possible with working code in an accessible, open source language — go a long way to helping someone get further.
5. Be brief but thorough. Round out your answer with some different angles on the question, especially if there's nuance in your answer. There's no need for an essay, so instead give links and references if the OP wants to know more.
6. Make connections. If there are people in your community or organization who should be connected, connect them.

It's remarkable how much effort people are willing to put into a great answer. A question about detecting dog paw-prints on a pressure pad, posted to the programming community Stack Overflow, elicited some great answers.

The thread didn't end there. Check out these two answers by Joe Kington, a programmer–geoscientist in Houston:

• One epic answer with code and animated GIFs, showing how to make a time-series of pawprints.
• A second answer, with more code, introducing the concept of eigenpaws to improve paw recognition.

Comment

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

If I had only one hour to solve a problem, I would spend up to two-thirds of that hour in attempting to define what the problem is. — Anonymous Yale professor (often wrongly attributed to Einstein)

Asking questions is a core skill for professionals. Asking questions to know, to understand, to probe, to test. Anyone can feel exposed asking questions, because they feel like they should know or understand already. If novices and 'experts' alike have trouble asking questions, if your community or organization does not foster a culture of asking, then there's a problem.

### What is a good question?

There are naive questions, tedious questions, ill-phrased questions, questions put after inadequate self-criticism. But every question is a cry to understand the world. There is no such thing as a dumb question. — Carl Sagan

Asking good questions is the best way to avoid the problem of feeling silly or — worse — being thought silly. Here are some tips from my experience in Q&A forums at work and on the Internet:

1. Do some research. Go beyond a quick Google search — try Google Scholar, ask one or two colleagues for help, look in the index of a couple of books. If you have time, stew on it for a day or two. Do enough to make sure the answer isn't widely known or trivial to find. Once you've decided to ask a network...
2. Ask your question in the right forum. You will save yourself a lot of time by going taking the trouble to find the right place — the place where the people most likely to be able to help you are. Avoid the shotgun approach: it's not considered good form to cross-post in multiple related forums.
3. Make the subject or headline a direct question, with some relevant detail. This is how most people will see your question and decide whether to even read the rest of it. So "Help please" or "Interpretation question" are hopeless. Much better is something like "How do I choose seismic attribute parameters?" or "What does 'replacement velocity' mean?".
4. Provide some detail, and ideally an image. A bit of background helps. If you have a software or programming problem, just enough information needed to reproduce the problem is critical. Tell people what you've read and where your assumptions are coming from. Tell people what you think is going on.

If you really want to cultivate your skills of inquiry, here is some more writing on the subject...

### Supply and demand

Knowledge sharing networks like Stack Exchange, or whatever you use at work, often focus too much on answers. Capturing lessons learned, for example. But you can't just push knowledge at people — the supply and demand equation has two sides — there has to be a pull too. The pull comes from questions, and an organization or community that pulls, learns.

Do you ask questions on knowledge networks? Do you have any advice for the curious?

Don't miss the next post, On answering questions.

Comment

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# How do I become a quantitative interpreter?

TLDR: start doing quantitative interpretation.

I just saw this question on reddit/r/geophysics

I always feel a bit sad when I read this sort of question, which is even more common on LinkedIn, because it reminds me that we (in the energy industry at least) have built recruiting patterns and HR practices that make it look as if professionals have career tracks or have to build CVs to impress people or get permission to train in a new area. This is all wrong.

Or, to be more precise, we can treat this as all wrong and have a lot more fun in the process.

If you are a 'geologist' or 'geophysicist', then you are in control of your own career and what you apply yourself to. No-one is telling you what to do, they are only telling you what they need. How you do it, the methods you apply, the products you build — all this is completely up to you. This is almost the whole point of being a professional.

The replies to Timbledon's question include this one:

I disagree with Schwa88. Poor Timbledon doesn't need another degree. Rock physics is not a market, and not new. There are no linear tracks. And there is no clear or useful distinction between rock physics and quantitative interpretation (or petrophysics, or seismic geophysics) — I bet there are no two self-identifying quantitative interpreters with identical, or even similar, job or educational histories.

As for 'now is not the time'... I can't even... 'Now' is the only time you can do anything about, so work with it.

### OK, enough ranting, what should Timbledon do?

It's easy! The best way to pursue quantitative interpretation, or pretty much anything except pediatric cardiology, is to just start doing it. It really is that simple. My advice is to use quantitative methods in every project you touch, and in doing so you will immediately outperform most interpreters. Talk to anyone and everyone about your interest and share your insights. Volunteer for projects. Go to talks. Give talks. To help you find your passion, take the time to learn about some big things:

• Rock physics, e.g. the difference between static and dynamic elasticity.
• Seismic processing, e.g. what surface consistent deconvolution and trim statics are.
• Seismic interpretation, e.g. seismic geomorphology and seismic stratigraphy.
• Seismic analysis, e.g. the difference between Zoeppritz, Fatti, and Shuey.
• Statistics, e.g. when you need multilinear regression, or K-means clustering.

Those are just examples. If you're more into X-ray diffraction in clays, or the physics of crystalline rocks, or fluid properties, or wellbore seismic, or time-lapse effects, or whatever — learn about those things instead.

Whatever you do, Timbledon, don't listen to anybody ;)

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# Once is never

Image by ZEEVVEEZ on Flickr, licensed CC-BY. Ten points if you can tell what it is...

My eldest daughter is in grade 5, so she's getting into some fun things at school. This week the class paired off to meet a challenge: build a container to keep hot water hot. Cool!

The teams built their contraptions over the weekend, doubtless with varying degrees of rule interpretation (my daughter's involved HotHands hand warmers, which I would not have thought of), and the results were established with a side-by-side comparison. Someone (not my daughter) won. Kudos was achieved.

But this should not be the end of the exercise. So far, no-one has really learned anything. Stopping here is like grinding wheat but not making bread. Or making dough, but not baking it. Or baking it, but not making it into toast, buttering it, and covering it in Marmite...

Great, now I'm hungry.

### The rest of the exercise

How could this experiment be improved?

For starters, there was a critical component missing: control. Adding a vacuum flask at one end, and an uninsulated beaker at the other would have set some useful benchmarks.

There was a piece missing from the end too: analysis. A teardown of the winning and losing efforts would have been quite instructive. Followed by a conversation about the relative merits of different insulators, say. I can even imagine building on the experience. How about a light introduction to thermodynamic theory, or a stab at simple numerical modeling? Or a design contest? Or a marketing plan?

Per Avseth, Tapan Mukerji and Gary Mavko (2005). Cambridge University Press, 408 pages, ISBN 978-0-521-15135-1. List price USD 91, $81.90 at Amazon.com, £45.79 at Amazon.co.uk You have this book, right? Every seismic interpreter that's thinking about rock properties, AVO, inversion, or anything beyond pure basin-scale geological interpretation needs this book. And the MATLAB scripts. ### Rock Physics Handbook Gary Mavko, Tapan Mukerji & Jack Dvorkin (2009). Cambridge University Press, 511 pages, ISBN 978-0-521-19910-0. List price USD 100,$92.41 at Amazon.com, £40.50 at Amazon.co.uk

If QSI is the book for quantitative interpreters, this is the book for people helping those interpreters. It's the Aki & Richards of rock physics. So if you like sums, and QSI left you feeling unsatisifed, buy this too. It also has lots of MATLAB scripts.

Jack Dvorkin, Mario Gutierrez & Dario Grana (2014). Cambridge University Press, 365 pages, ISBN 978-0-521-89919-2. List price USD 75, $67.50 at Amazon.com, £40.50 at Amazon.co.uk This book seems to be a companion to The Rock Physics Handbook. It feels quite academic, though it doesn't contain too much maths. Instead, it's more like a systematic catalog of log models — exploring the full range of seismic responses to rock properies. ### Practical Seismic Data Analysis Hua-Wei Zhou (2014). Cambridge University Press, 496 pages, ISBN 978-0-521-19910-0. List price USD 75,$67.50 at Amazon.com, £40.50 at Amazon.co.uk

Zhou is a professor at the University of Houston. His book leans towards imaging and velocity analysis — it's not really about interpretation. If you're into signal processing and tomography, this is the book for you. Mostly black and white, the book has lots of exercises (no solutions though).

Rob Simm & Mike Bacon (2014). Cambridge University Press, 279 pages, ISBN 978-1-107-01150-2 (hardback). List price USD 80, $72 at Amazon.com, £40.50 at Amazon.co.uk Simm is a legend in quantitative interpretation and the similarly lauded Bacon is at Ikon, the pre-eminent rock physics company. These guys know their stuff, and they've filled this superbly illustrated book with the essentials. It belongs on every interpreter's desk. ### Seismic Data Analysis Techniques... Enwenode Onajite (2013). Elsevier. 256 pages, ISBN 978-0124200234. List price USD 130,$113.40 at Amazon.com. £74.91 at Amazon.co.uk.

This is the only book of the collection I don't have. From the preview I'd say it's aimed at undergraduates. It starts with a petroleum geology primer, then covers seismic acquisition, and seems to focus on processing, with a little on interpretation. The figures look rather weak, compared to the other books here. Not recommended, not at this price.

NOTE These prices are Amazon's discounted prices and are subject to change. The links contain a tag that gets us commission, but does not change the price to you. You can almost certainly buy these books elsewhere.

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### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.