# Is your data digital or just pseudodigital?

A rite of passage for a geologist is the making of an original geological map, starting from scratch. In the UK, this is known as the ‘independent mapping project’ and is usually done at the end of the second year of an undergrad degree. I did mine on the eastern shore of the Embalse de Santa Ana, just north of Alfarras in Catalunya, Spain. (I wrote all about it back in 2012.)

The map I drew was about as analog as you can get. I drew it with Rotring Rapidograph pens on drafting film. Mistakes had to be painstakingly scraped away with a razor blade. Colour had to be added in pencil after the map had been transferred onto paper. There is only one map in existence. The data is gone. It is absolutely unreproducible.

### Digitize!

In order to show you the map, I had to digitize it. This word makes it sound like the map is now ‘digital data’, but it’s really not useful for anything scientific. In other words, while it is ‘digital’ in the loosest sense — it’s a bunch of binary bits in the cloud — it is not digital in the sense of organized data elements with semantic meaning. Let’s call this non-useful format palaeodigital. The lowest rung on the digital ladder.

You can get palaeodigital files from many state and national data repositories. For example, it’s how the Government of Nova Scotia stores its offshore seismic ‘data’ files — as TIFF files representing scans of paper sections submitted by operators. Wiggle trace, obviously, making them almost completely useless.

### Protodigital

Nobody draws map by hand anymore, that would be crazy. Adobe Illustrator and (better) Inkscape mean we can produce beautifully rendered maps with about the same amount of effort as the hand-drawn version. But… this still isn’t digital. This is nothing more than a computerized rip-off of the analog workflow. The result is almost as static and difficult to edit as it was on film. (Wish you’d used a thicker line for your fault traces on those 20 maps? Have fun editing those files!)

Let’s call the computerization of analog workflows or artifacts protodigital. I’m thinking of Word and Powerpoint. Email. SeisWorks. Techlog. We can think of data in the same way… LAS files are really just a text-file manifestation of a composite log (plus their headers are often garbage). SEG-Y is nothing more than a bunch of traces with a sidelabel.

Together, palaeodigital and protodigital data might be called pseudodigital. They look digital, but they’re not quite there.

(Just to be clear, I made all these words up. They are definitely silly… but the point is that there’s a lot of room between analog and useful, machine-learning-ready digital.)

### Digital data

So what’s at the top of the digital ladder? In the case of maps, it’s shapefiles or, better yet, GeoJSON. In these files, objects are described in terms of real geographic parameters, such at latitiude and longitude. The file contains the CRS (you know you need that, right?) and other things you might need like units, data provenance, attributes, and so on.

What makes these things truly digital? I think the following things are important:

• They can all be self-documenting

• …and can carry more or less arbitrary amounts of metadata.

• They depend on open formats, some text and some binary, that are widely used.

• There is free, open-source tooling for reading and writing these formats, usually with reference implementations in major languages (e.g. C/C++, Python, Java).

• They are composable. Without too much trouble, you could write a script to process batches of these files, adapting to their content and context.

Here’s how non-digital versions of a document, e.g. a scholoarly article, compare to digital data:

And pseudodigital well logs:

Some more examples:

• Photographs with EXIF data and geolocation.

• GIS tools like QGIS let us make beautiful maps with data.

• Drawing striplogs with a data-driven tool like Python striplog.

• A fully-labeled HDF5 file containing QC’d, machine-learning-ready well logs.

• Structured, metadata-rich documents, perhaps in JSON format.

### Watch out for pseudodigital

Why does all this matter? It matters because we need digital data before we can do any analysis, or any machine learning. If you give me pseudodigital data for a project, I’m going to spend at least 50% of my time, probably more, making it digital before I can even get started. So before embarking on a machine learning project, you really, really need to know what you’re dealing with: digital or just pseudodigital?

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### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# Training digital scientists

Gulp. My first post in… a while. Life, work, chaos, ideas — it all caught up with me recently. I’ve missed the blog greatly, and felt a regular pang of guilt at letting it gather dust. But I’m back! The 200+ draft posts in my backlog ain’t gonna write themselves. Thank you for returning and reading this one.

Recently I wrote about our continuing adventures in training; since I wrote that post in April, we’ve taught another 166 people. It occurred to me that while teaching scientists to code, we’ve also learned a bit about how to teach, and I wanted to share that too. Perhaps you will be inspired to share your skills, and together we can have exponential impact.

### Wanting to get better

As usual, it all started with not knowing how to do something, doing it anyway, then wanting to get better.

We started teaching in 2014 as rank amateurs, both as coders and as teachers. But we soon discovered the ‘teaching tech’ subculture among computational scientists. In particular, we found Greg Wilson and the Software Carpentry movement he started. By that point, it had been around for many, many years. Incredibly, Software Carpentry has helped more than 34,000 researchers ‘go digital’. The impact on science can’t be measured.

Eager as ever, we signed up for the instructor’s course. It was fantastic. The course, taught by Greg Wilson himself, perfectly modeled the thing it was offering to teach you: “Do what I say, and what I do”. This is, of course, critically important in all things, especially teaching. We accepted the content so completely that I’m not even sure we graduated. We just absorbed it and ran with it, no doubt corrupting it on the way. But it works for us.

I should preface what follows by telling you that I haven’t taken any other courses on the subject of teaching. For all I know, there’s nothing new here. That said, I have never experienced a course like Greg Wilson’s, so either the methods he promotes are not widely known, or they’re widely ignored, or I’ve been really unlucky.

The easiest way to get Greg Wilson’s wisdom is probably to read his book-slash-website, Teaching Tech Together. (It’s free, but you can get a hard copy if you prefer.) It’s really good. You can get the vibe — and much of the most important advice — from the ten Teaching Tech Together rules laid out on the main page of that site (box, right).

As you can probably tell, most of it is about parking your ego, plus most of your knowledge (for now), and orientating everything — every single thing — around the learner.

If you want to go deeper, I also recommend reading the excellent, if rather academic, How Learning Works, by Susan Ambrose (Northeastern University) and others. It’s strongly research-driven, and contains a lot of great advice. In particular, it does a great job of listing the factors that motivate students to learn (and those that demotivate them), and spelling out the various ways in which students acquire mastery of a subject.

### How to practice

It goes without saying that you’ll need to teach. A lot. Not surprisingly, we find we get much better if we teach several courses in a short period. If you’re diligent, take a lot of notes and study them before the next class, maybe it’s okay if a few weeks or months go by. But I highly doubt you can teach once or twice a year and get good at it.

Something it took us a while to get comfortable with is what Evan calls ‘mistaking’. If you’re a master coder, you might not make too many mistakes (but your expertise means you will have other problems). If you’re not a master (join the club), you will make a lot of mistakes. Embracing everything as a learning opportunity is less awkward for you, and for the students — dealing with mistakes is a core competency for all programmers.

Reflective practice means asking for, and then acting on, student feedback — every day. We ask students to write it on sticky notes. Reading these back to the class the next morning is a good way to really read it. One of the many benefits of ‘never teach alone’ is always having someone to give you feedback from another teacher’s perspective too. Multi-day courses let us improve in real time, which is good for us and for the students.

• Keep the student:instructor ratio to no more than ten; seven or eight is better.

• Take a packet of orange and a packet of green Post-It notes. Use them for names, as ‘help me’ flags, and for feedback.

• When teaching programming, the more live coding — from scratch — you can do, the better. While you code, narrate your thought process. This way, students are able to make conections between ideas, code, and mistakes.

• To explain concepts, draw on a whiteboard. Avoid slides whenever possible.

• Our co-teacher John Leeman likes to say, “I just showed you something new, what questions do you have?” This beats “Any questions?” for opening the door to engagement.

• “No-one left behind” is a nice idea, but it’s not always practical. If students can’t devote 100% to the class and then struggle because of it, you owe it to the the others to politely suggest they pick the class up again next time.

• Devote some time to the practical application of the skills you’re teaching, preferably in areas of the participants’ own choosing. In our 5-day class, we devote a whole day to getting students started on their own projects.

• Don’t underestimate the importance of a nice space, natural light, good food, and frequent breaks.

• Recognize everyone’s achievement with a small gift at the end of the class.

• Learning is hard work. Finish early every day.

### Give it a try

If you’re interested in help people learn to code, the most obvious way to start is to offer to assist or co-teach in someone else’s class. Or simply start small, offering a half-day session to a few co-workers. Even if you only recently got started yourself, they’ll appreciate the helping hand. If you’re feeling really confident, or have been coding for a year or two at least, try something bolder — maybe offer a one-day class at a meeting or conference. You will find plenty of interest.

There are few better ways to improve your own skills than to teach. And the feeling of helping people develop a valuable skill is addictive. If you give it a try, let us know how you get on!

Comment

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# Feel superhuman: learning and teaching geocomputing

Diego teaching in Houston in 2018.

It’s five years since we started teaching Python to geoscientists. To be honest, it might have been premature. At the time, Evan and I were maybe only two years into serious, daily use of Python. But the first class, at the Atlantic Geological Society’s annual meeting in February 2014, was free so the pressure was not too high. And it turns out that only being a step or two ahead of your students can be an advantage. Your ‘expert blind spot’ is partially sighted not completely blind, because you can clearly remember being a noob.

Being a noob is a weird, sometimes very uncomfortable, even scary, feeling for some people. Many of us are used to feeling like experts, at least some of the time. Happy, feeling like a noob is a core competency in programming. Learning new things is a more or less hourly experience for coders. Even a mature language like Python evolves fast enough that it’s hard to keep up. Instead of feeling threatened or exhausted by this, I think the best strategy is to enjoy it. You’ll never be done, there are (way) more questions than answers, and you can learn forever!

One of the bootcamp groups at the Copenhagen hackathon in 2018

This week we’re teaching our 40th course. Last year alone we gave digital superpowers to 325 people, mostly geoscientists, Not all of them learned to code, as such — some people already could, and some found out theydidn’t like it… coding really isn’t for everyone. But I think all of them learned something new about technology, and how it can serve them and their science. I hope all of them look at spreadsheets, and Petrel, and websites differently now. I think most of them want, at some point, to learn more. And everyone is excited about machine learning.

### The expanding community of quantitative earth scientists

This year we’ve already spent 50 days teaching, and taught 174 people. Imagine that! I get emotional when I think about what these hundreds of new digital geoscientists and engineers will go and do with their new skills. I get really excited when I see what they are already doing — when they come to hackathons, send us screenshots, or write papers with beautiful figures. If the joy of sharing code and collaborating with peers has also rubbed off on them, there’s no telling where it could lead.

Matt teaching in Aberdeen in October 2018

The last nine months or so have been an adventure. Teaching is not supposed to be what Agile is about. We’re a consulting company, a technology company. But for now we’re mostly a training company — it’s where we’re needed. And it makes sense... Programming is fundamentally about knowledge sharing. Teaching is about helping, collaborating. It’s perfect for us.

Besides, it’s a privilege and a thrill to meet all these fantastically smart, motivated people and to hear about their projects and their plans. Sometimes I wish it didn’t mean leaving my family in Nova Scotia and flying to Houston and London and Kuala Lumpur and Kalamazoo… but mostly I wish we could do more of it. Especially when we get comments like these:

How many times have you felt superhuman at work recently?

The courses we teach are evolving and expanding in scope. But they all come back to the same thing: growing digital skills in our profession. This is critical because using computers for earth science is really hard. Why? The earth is weird. We’ve spent hundreds of years honing conceptual models, understanding deep time, and figuring out complex spatial relationships.

If data science eats the subsurface without us, we’re all going to get indigestion. Society needs to better understand the earth — for all sorts of reasons — and it’s our duty to build and adopt the most powerful analytical tools available so that we can help.

### Learning resources

If you can’t wait to get started, here are some suggestions:

Classroom courses are a big investment in dollars and time, but they can get you a long way really quickly. Our courses are built especially for subsurface scientists and engineers. As far as I know, they are the only ones of their kind. If you think you’d like to take one, talk to us, or look out for a public course. You can find out more or sign up for email alerts here >> https://agilescientific.com/training/

Last thing: I suggest avoiding DataCamp, because of sexual misconduct by an executive, compounded by total inaction, dishonest obfuscation, and basically failing spectacularly. Even their own trainers have boycotted them. Steer clear.

1 Comment

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# X lines of Python: Ternary diagrams

Difficulty rating: beginner-friendly

(I just realized that calling the more approachable tutorials ‘easy’ is perhaps not the most sympathetic way to put it. But I think this one is fairly approachable.)

If you’re new to Python, plotting is a great way to get used to data structures, and even syntax, because you get immediate visual feedback. Plots are just fun.

The first thing is to load the data, which is contained in a Google Sheets spreadsheet. If you make a sheet public, it’s easy to make a URL that provides a CSV. Happily, the Python data management library pandas can read URLs directly, so loading the data is quite easy — the only slightly ugly thing is the long URL:

    import pandas as pd
uid = "1r7AYOFEw9RgU0QaagxkHuECvfoegQWp9spQtMV8XJGI"
df = pd.read_csv(url) 

This dataset contains results from point-counting 51 shallow marine sandstones from the Eocene Sobrarbe Formation. We’re going to plot normalized volume percentages of quartz grains, detrital carbonate grains, and undifferentiated matrix. Three parameters? Two degrees of freedom? Let’s make a ternary plot!

### Data exploration

Once you have the data in pandas, and before getting to the triangular stuff, we should have a look at it. Seaborn, a popular statistical plotting library, has a nifty ‘pairplot’ which plots the numerical parameters against each other to help reveal patterns in the data. On the diagonal, it shows kernel density estimations to reveal the distribution of each property:

    import seaborn as sns
vars = ['Matrix', 'Quartz', 'Carbonate', 'Bioclasts', 'Authigenic']
sns.pairplot(df, vars=vars, hue='Facies Association')

Normalization is fairly straightforward. For each column, e.g. df['Carbonate'], we make a new column, e.g. df['C'], which is normalized to the sum of the three components, given by df[cols].sum(axis=1):

cols = ['Carbonate', 'Quartz', 'Matrix']
for col in cols:
df[col[0]] = df[col] * 100 / df[cols].sum(axis=1)

### The ternary plot

For the ternary plot itself I’m using the python-ternary library, which is pretty hands-on in that most plots take quite a bit of code. But the upside of this is that you can do almost anything you want. (Theres one other option for Python, the ever-reliable plotly, and there’s a solid-looking package for R too in ggtern.)

We just need a few lines of plotting code (left) to pull a ternary diagram (right) together.

    fig, tax = ternary.figure(scale=100)
fig.set_size_inches(5, 4.5)

tax.scatter(df[['M', 'Q', 'C']].values)
tax.gridlines(multiple=20)
tax.get_axes().axis('off')

But here you see what I mean about this being quite a low-level library: each element of the plot has to be added explicitly. So if we want axis labels, titles, and other annotations, we need more code… all of which is laid out in the accompanying notebook. You can download this from GitHub, or run in right now, right in your browser, with these links:

Run the accompanying notebook in MyBinder

Run the notebook in Google Colaboratory (note you need to install python-ternary)

Give it a go, and have fun making your own ternary plots in Python! Share them on LinkedIn or Twitter.

Quartz, carbonate and matrix quantities (normalized to 100%) for 51 calcareous sandstones from the Eocene Sobrarbe Formation. The ternary plot was made with python-ternary library for Python and matplotlib.

1 Comment

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# The digital subsurface water-cooler

Back in August 2016 I told you about the Software Underground, an informal, grass-roots community of people who are into rocks and computers. At its heart is a public Slack group (Slack is a bit like Yammer or Skype but much more awesome). At the time, the Underground had 130 members. This morning, we hit ten times that number: there are now 1300 enthusiasts in the Underground!

If you’re one of them, you already know that it’s easily the best place there is to find and chat to people who are involved in researching and applying machine learning in the subsurface — in geoscience, reservoir engineering, and enything else to do with the hard parts of the earth. And it’s not just about AI… it’s about data management, visualization, Python, and web applications. Here are some things that have been shared in the last 7 days:

• News about the upcoming Software Underground hackathon in London.

• A new Udacity course on TensorFlow.

• Questions to ask when reviewing machine learning projects.

• A Dockerfile to make installing Seismic Unix a snap.

• Mark Zoback’s new geomechanics course.

It gets better. One of the most interesting conversations recently has been about starting a new online-only, open-access journal for the geeky side of geo. Look for the #journal channel.

Another emerging feature is the ‘real life’ meetup. Several social+science gatherings have happened recently in Aberdeen, Houston, and Calgary… and more are planned, check #meetups for details. If you’d like to organize a meetup where you live, Software Underground will support it financially.

We’ve also gained a website, softwareunderground.org, where you’ll find a link to sign-up in the Slack group, some recommended reading, and fantastic Software Underground T-shirts and mugs! There are also other ways to support the community with a subscription or sponsorship.

If you’ve been looking for the geeks, data-heads, coders and makers in geoscience and engineering, you’ve found them. It’s free to sign up — I hope we see you in there soon!

Slack has nice desktop, web and mobile clients. Check out all the channels — they are listed on the left:

Comment

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# X lines of Python: Gridding map data

Difficulty rating: moderate.

Welcome to the latest in the X lines of Python series. You probably thought it had died, gawn to ‘eaven, was an x-series. Well, it’s back!

Today we’re going to fit a regularly sampled surface — a grid — to an irregular set of points in (x, y) space. The points represent porosity, measured in volume percent.

Here’s what we’re going to do; it all comes to only 9 lines of code!

1. Load the data from a text file (needs 1 line of code).

2. Compute the extents and then the coordinates of the new grid (2 lines).

3. Make a radial basis function interpolator using SciPy (1 line).

4. Perform the interpolation (1 line).

5. Make a plot (4 lines).

As usual, there’s a Jupyter Notebook accompanying this blog post, and you can run it right now without installing anything.

Run the accompanying notebook in MyBinder

Run the notebook in Google Colaboratory

### Just the juicy bits

The notebook goes over the workflow in a bit more detail — with more plots and a few different ways of doing the interpolation. For example, we try out triangulation and demonstrate using scikit-learn’s Gaussian process model to show how we might use kriging (turns out kriging was machine learning all along!).

If you don’t have time for all that, and just want the meat of the notebook, here it is:

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from scipy.interpolate import Rbf

sep=' ',
usecols=[0, 1, 2, 3],
names=['x', 'y', 'thick', 'por']
)

# Build a regular grid with 500-metre cells.
extent = x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max = [df.x.min()-1000, df.x.max()+1000,
df.y.min()-1000, df.y.max()+1000]
grid_x, grid_y = np.mgrid[x_min:x_max:500, y_min:y_max:500]

# Make the interpolator and do the interpolation.
rbfi = Rbf(df.x, df.y, df.por)
di = rbfi(grid_x, grid_y)

# Make the plot.
plt.figure(figsize=(15, 15))
plt.imshow(di.T, origin="lower", extent=extent)
cb = plt.scatter(df.x, df.y, s=60, c=df.por, edgecolor='#ffffff66')
plt.colorbar(cb, shrink=0.67)
plt.show()

This results in the following plot, in which the points are the original data, plotted with the same colourmap as the surface itself (so they should be the same colour, more or less, as their background).

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# The venue for TRANSFORM

Last time I told you a bit about what to expect at the TRANSFORM unconference we’re hosting in May. But I haven’t really told you about the venue yet, and it’s one of the best bits.

We’re hosting the event at the Château de Rosay, near Rouen in France. This is a large house in a small village. It is completely self-contained: we can sleep there, eat there, work there, relax there. There’s room for about 45 people or so. The place looks spectacular:

A few people have said to me that they don’t feel like they could contribute much to a conversation about open source subsurface software… but this unconference is absolutely for anyone. If you are doing science or engineering underground, and if you are interested in the technology we use to do this, you can contribute.

Some of the things we’ll be talking about:

• Which open tools exist, and can any of them be rescued from disuse?

• Who is developing these tools and what kind of support do they need?

• How can we make it easier for anybody to contribute to these projects?

• What can we do right now that will improve the open stack the most?

All the place needs is a few subsurface scientists and engineers with latops, then it’s perfect! I hope you can join us there.

TRANSFORM 2019

A new unconference about subsurface software

Comment

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# The London hackathon

At the end of November I reported on the projects at the Oil & Gas Authority’s machine learning hackathon in Aberdeen. This post is about the follow-up event at London Olympia.

Like the Aberdeen hackathon the previous weekend, the theme was ‘machine learning’. The event unfolded in the Apex Room at Olympia, during the weekend before the PETEX conference. The venue was excellent, with attentive staff and top-notch catering. Thank you to the PESGB for organizing that side of things.

Thirty-eight digital geoscientists spent the weekend with us, and most of them also took advantage of the bootcamp on Friday; at least a dozen of those had not coded at all before the event. It’s such a privilege to work with people on their skills at these events, and to see them writing their own code over the weekend.

Here’s the full list of projects from the event…

### Sweet spot hunting

Sweet Spot Sweat Shop: Alan Wilson, Geoff Chambers, Marco van der Linden, Maxim Kotenev, Rowan Haddad.

Project: We’ve seen a few people tackling the issue of making decisions from large numbers of realizations recently. The approach here was to generate maps of various outputs from dynamic modeling and present these to the user in an interactive way. The team also had maps of sweet spots, as determined by simulation, and they attempted to train models to predict these sweetspots directly from the property maps. The result was a unique and interesting exploration of the potential for machine learning to augment standard workflows in reservoir modeling and simulation. Project page. GitHub repo.

### An intelligent dashboard

Dash AI: Vincent Penasse, Pierre Guilpain.

Project: Vincent and Pierre believed so strongly in their project that they ran with it as a pair. They started with labelled production history from 8 wells in a Pandas dataframe. They trained some models, including decision trees and KNN classifiers, to recognizedata issues and recommend required actions. Using skills they gained in the bootcamp, they put a flask web app in front of these to allow some interaction. The result was the start of an intelligent dashboard that not only flagged issues, but also recommended a response. Project page.

This project won recognition for impact.

### Predicting logs ahead of the bit

Team Mystic Bit: Connor Tann, Lawrie Cowliff, Justin Boylan-Toomey, Patrick Davies, Alessandro Christofori, Dan Austin, Jeremy Fortun.

Project: Thinking of this awesome demo, I threw down the gauntlet of real-time look-ahead prediction on the Friday evening, and Connor and the Mystic Bit team picked it up. They did a great job, training a series of models to predict a most likely log (see right) as well as upper and lower bounds. In the figure, the bit is currently at 1770 m. The model is shown the points above this. The orange crosses are the P90, P50 and P10 predictions up to 40 m ahead of the bit. The blue points below 1770 m have not yet been encountered. Project page. GitHub repo.

This project won recognition for best execution.

### The seals make a comeback

Selkie Se7en: Georgina Malas, Matthew Gelsthorpe, Caroline White, Karen Guldbaek Schmidt, Jalil Nasseri, Joshua Fernandes, Max Coussens, Samuel Eckford.

Project: At the Aberdeen hackathon, Julien Moreau brought along a couple of satellite image with the locations of thousands of seals on the images. They succeeded in training a model to correctly identify seal locations 80% of the time. In London, another team of almost all geologists picked up the project. They applied various models to the task, and eventually achieved a binary prediction accuracy of over 97%. In addition, the team trained a multiclass convolutional neural network to distinguish between whitecoats (pups), moulted seals (yearlings and adults), double seals, and dead seals.

Impressive stuff; it’s always inspiring to see people operating way outside their comfort zone. Project page.

### Interpreting the language of stratigraphy

The Lithographers: Gijs Straathof, Michael Steventon, Rodolfo Oliveira, Fabio Contreras, Simon Franchini, Malgorzata Drwila.

Project: At the project bazaar on Friday (the kick-off event at which we get people into teams), there was some chat about the recent paper on lithology prediction using recurrent neural networks (Jiang & James, 2018). This team picked up the idea and set out to reproduce the results from the paper. In the process, they digitized lithologies from one of the Posiedon wells. Project page. GitHub repo.

This project won recognition for teamwork.

### Know What You Know

Team KWYK: Malcolm Gall, Thomas Stell, Sebastian Grebe, Marco Conticini, Daniel Brown.

Project: There’s always at least one team willing to take on the billions of pseudodigital documents lying around the industry. The team applied latent semantic analysis (a standard approach in natural language processing) to some of the gnarlier documents in the OGA’s repository. Since the documents don’t have labels, this is essentially an unsupervised task, and therefore difficult to QC, but the method seemed to be returning useful things. They put it all in a nice web app too. Project page. GitHub repo.

This project won recognition for Most Value.

### A new approach to source separation

Cocktail Party Problem: Song Hou, Fai Leung, Matthew Haarhoff, Ivan Antonov, Julia Sysoeva.

Project: Song, who works at CGG, has a history of showing up to hackathons with very cool projects, and this was no exception. He has been working on solving the seismic source separation problem, more generally known as the cocktail party problem, using deep learning… and seems to have some remarkable results. This is cool because the current deblending methods are expensive. At the hackathon he and his team looked for ways to express the uncertainty in the deblending result, and even to teach a model to predict which parts of the records were not being resolved with acceptable signal:noise. Highly original work and worth keeping an eye on.

A big Thank You to the judges: Gillian White of the OGTC joined us a second time, along with the OGA’s own Jo Bagguley and Tom Sandison from Shell Exploration. Jo and Tom both participated in the Subsurface Hackathon in Copenhagen earlier this year, so were able to identify closely with the teams.

Thank you as well to the sponsors of these events, who all deserve the admiration of the community for stepping up so generously to support skill development in our industry:

That’s it for hackathons this year! If you feel inspired by all this digital science, do get involved. There are computery geoscience conversations every day over at the Software Underground Slack workspace. We’re hosting a digital subsurface conference in France in May. And there are lots of ways to get started with scientific computing… why not give the tutorials at Learn Python a shot over the holidays?

To inspire you a bit more, check out some more pictures from the event…

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### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# The Scottish hackathon

On 16−18 November the UK Oil & Gas Authority (OGA) hosted its first hackathon, with Agile providing the format and technical support. This followed a week of training the OGA provided — again, through Agile — back in September. The theme for the hackathon was ‘machine learning’, and I’m pretty sure it was the first ever geoscience hackathon in the UK.

Thirty-seven digital geoscientists participated in the event at Robert Gordon University; most of them appear below. Many of them had not coded at all before the bootcamp on Friday, so a lot of people were well outside their comfort zones when we sat down on Saturday. Kudos to everyone!

The projects included the usual mix of seismic-based tasks, automated well log picking, a bit of natural language processing, some geospatial processing, and seals (of the mammalian variety). Here’s a rundown of what people got up to:

### Counting seals on Scottish islands

Seal Team 6: Julien Moreau, James Mullins, Alex Schaaf, Balazs Kertesz, Hassan Tolba, Tom Buckley.

Project: Julien arrived with a cool dataset: over 6000 seals located on two large TIFFs images of Linga Holm, an island off Stronsay in the Orkneys. The challenge: locate the seals automatically. The team came up with a pipeline to generate HOG descriptors, train a support vector machine on about 20,000 labelled image tiles, then scan the large TIFFs to try to identify seals. Shown here is the output of one such scan, with a few false positive and false negatives. GitHub repo.

This project won the Most Impact award.

### Automatic classification of seismic sections

Team Seis Class: Jo Bagguley, Laura Bardsley, Chio Martinez, Peter Rowbotham, Mike Atkins, Niall Rowantree, James Beckwith.

Project: Can you tell if a section has been spectrally whitened? Or AGC’d? This team set out to attempt to teach a neural network the difference. As a first step, they reduced it to a binary classification problem, and showed 110 ‘final’ and 110 ‘raw’ lines from the OGA ESP 2D 2016 dataset to a convolutional neural net. The AI achieved an accuracy of 98% on this task. GitHub repro.

This project won recognition for a Job Well Done.

### Why do get blocks relinquished?

Team Relinquishment Surprise: Tanya Knowles, Obiamaka Agbaneje, Kachalla Aliyuda, Daniel Camacho, David Wilkinson (not pictured).

Project: Recognizing the vast trove of latent information locked up in the several thousand reports submitted to the OGA. Despite focusing on relinquishment, they quickly discovered that most of the task is to cope with the heterogeneity of the dataset, but they did manage to extract term frequencies from the various Conclusions sections, and made an ArcGIS web app to map them.

### Recognizing reflection styles on seismic

Team What’s My Seismic? Quentin Corlay, Tony Hallam, Ramy Abdallah, Zhihua Cui, Elia Gubbala, Amechi Halim.

Project: The team wanted to detect the presence of various seismic facies in a small segment of seismic data (with a view to later interpreting entire datasets). They quickly generated a training dataset, then explored three classifiers: XGBoost, Google’s AutoML, and a CNN. All of the methods gave reasonable results and were promising enough that the team vowed to continue investigating the problem. Project website. GitHub repo.

This project won the Best Execution award.

### Stretchy-squeezey well log correlation

Team Dynamic Depth Warping: Jacqueline Booth, Sarah Weihmann, Khaled Muhammad, Sadiq Sani, Rahman Mukras, Trent Piaralall, Julio Rodriguez.

Project: Making picks and correlations in wireline data is hard, partly because the stratigraphic signal changes spatially — thinning and thickening, and with missing or extra sections. To try to cope with this, the team applied a dynamic time (well, depth) warping algorithm to the logs, then looking for similar sections in adjacent wells. The image shows a target GR log (left) with the 5 most similar sections. Two, maybe four, of them seem reasonable. Next the team planned to incorporate more logs, and attach probabilities to the correlations. Early results looked promising. GitHub repo.

### Making lithostrat picks

Team Marker Maker: Nick Hayward, Frédéric Ramon, Can Yang, Peter Crafts, Malcolm Gall

Project: The team took on the task of sorting out lithostratigraphic well tops in a mature basin. But there are speedbumps on the road to glory, e.g. recognizing which picks are lithological (as opposed to chronological), and which pick names are equivalent. The team spent time on various subproblems, but there’s a long road ahead.

This project won recognition for a Job Well Done.

Alongside these projects, Rob and I floated around trying to help, and James Beckwith hacked on a cool project of his own for a while — Paint By Seismic, a look at unsupervised classification on seismic sections. In between generating attributes and clustering, he somehow managed to help and mentor most of the other teams — thanks James!

### Thank you!

Thank you to The OGA for these events, and in particular to Jo Bagguley, whose organizational skills I much appreciated over the last few weeks (as my own skills gradually fell apart). The OGA’s own Nick Richardson, the OGTC’s Gillian White, and Robert Gordon Universty’s Eyad Elyan acted as judges.

These organizations contributed to the success of these events — please say Thank You to them when you can!

I’ll leave you with some more photos from the event. Enjoy!

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# TRANSFORM 2019

Yesterday I announced that we’re hatching a new plan. The next thing. Today I want to tell you about it.

The project has the codename TRANSFORM. I like the notion of transforms: functions that move you from one domain to another. Fourier transforms. Wavelet transforms. Digital subsurface transforms. Examples:

• The transformative effect of open source software on subsurface science. Open source accelerates our work!

• The transformative effect of collaborative, participatory events on the community. We can make new things!

• The transformative effect of training on ourselves and our peers. Lots of us have new superpowers!

Together, we’ve built the foundation for a new, open software platform.

### A domain shift

We think it’s time to refocus the hackathons as sprints — purposefully producing a sustainable, long-lasting, high quality, open source software stack that we can all use and combine into new tools, whether open or proprietary, free or commercial.

We think it’s time to bring a full-featured unconference into the mix. The half-day ‘unsessions’ open too many paths, and leave too few explored. We need more time — to share research, plan software projects, and write code.

Together, we can launch a new era in scientific computing for the subsurface.

At the core of this new era core is a new open-source software stack, created, maintained, and implemented by a community of scientists and organizations passionate about its potential.

Here’s the plan. We’re hosting an unconference from 5 to 11 May 2019, with full days from Monday to Friday. The event will take place at the Château de Rosay, near Rouen, France. It will be fully residential and fully catered. We have room for about 45 participants.

The goal is to lay down a road map for designing, funding, and building an open source software stack for subsurface. In the coming days and weeks, we will formulate the plan for the week, with input from the Software Underground. We want to hear from you. Propose a session! Host a sprint! Offer a bounty! There are lots of ways to get involved.

Map data: GeoBasis-DE / BKG / Google, photo: Chateauform. Click to enlarge.

If you want to be part of this effort, as a developer, an end-user, or a sponsor, then we invite you to join us.

The unconference fee will be EUR 1000, and accommodation and food will be EUR 1500. The student fees will be EUR 240 and EUR 360. There will be at least 5 bursaries of EUR 1000 available.

For the time being, we will be accepting early commitments, with a deposit of EUR 400 to secure a place (students wishing to register now should get in touch). Soon, you will be able to sign up online… we are working on a smooth process. In the meantime, click here to register your interest, share ideas for content, or sign up by paying a deposit.

Thanks for reading. We look forward to figuring this out together.

I’m delighted to be able to announce that we already have support from Dell EMC. Thanks as ever to David Holmes for his willingness to fund experiments!

In the US or Canada? Don’t despair! There will be a North American edition in Quebec in late September.

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### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.