# The Surmont Supermerge

In my recent Abstract horror post, I mentioned an interesting paper in passing, Durkin et al. (2017):

Paul R. Durkin, Ron L. Boyd, Stephen M. Hubbard, Albert W. Shultz, Michael D. Blum (2017). Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Meander-Belt Evolution, Cretaceous Mcmurray Formation, Alberta Foreland Basin, Canada. Journal of Sedimentary Research 87 (10), p 1075–1099. doi: 10.2110/jsr.2017.59

I wanted to write about it, or rather about its dataset, because I spent about 3 years of my life working on the USD 75 million seismic volume featured in the paper. Not just on interpreting it, but also on acquiring and processing the data.

Let's start by feasting our eyes on a horizon slice, plus interpretation, of the Surmont 'Supermerge' 3D seismic volume:

Figure 1 from Durkin et al (2017), showing a stratal slice from 10 ms below the top of the McMurray Formation (left), and its interpretation (right). © 2017, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) and licensed CC-BY.

A decade ago, I was 'geophysics advisor' on Surmont, which is jointly operated by ConocoPhillips Canada, where I worked, and Total E&P Canada. My line manager was a Total employee; his managers were ex-Gulf Canada. It was a fantastic, high-functioning team, and working on this project had a profound effect on me as a geoscientist.

### The Surmont bitumen field

The dataset covers most of the Surmont lease, in the giant Athabasca Oil Sands play of northern Alberta, Canada. The Surmont field alone contains something like 25 billions barrels of bitumen in place. It's ridiculously massive — you'd be delighted to find 300 million bbl offshore. Given that it's expensive and carbon-intensive to produce bitumen with today's methods — steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD, "sag-dee") in Surmont's case — it's understandable that there's a great deal of debate about producing the oil sands. One factoid: you have to burn about 1 Mscf or 30 m³ of natural gas, costing about USD 10–15, to make enough steam to produce 1 bbl of bitumen.

Detail from Figure 12 from Durkin et al (2017), showing a seismic section through the McMurray Formation. Most of the abandoned channels are filled with mudstone (really a siltstone). The dipping heterolithic strata of the point bars, so obvious in horizon slices, are quite subtle in section. © 2017, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) and licensed CC-BY.

The field is a geoscience wonderland. Apart from the 600 km² of beautiful 3D seismic, there are now about 1500 wells, most of which are on the 3D. In places there are more than 20 wells per section (1 sq mile, 2.6 km², 640 acres). Most of the wells have a full suite of logs, including FMI in 2/3 wells and shear sonic as well in many cases, and about 550 wells now have core through the entire reservoir interval — about 65–75 m across most of Surmont. Let that sink in for a minute.

### What's so awesome about the seismic?

OK, I'm a bit biased, because I planned the acquisition of several pieces of this survey. There are some challenges to collecting great data at Surmont. The reservoir is only about 500 m below the surface. Much of the pay sand can barely be called 'rock' because it's unconsolidated sand, and the reservoir 'fluid' is a quasi-solid with a viscosity of 1 million cP. The surface has some decent topography, and the near surface is glacial till, with plenty of boulders and gravel-filled channels. There are surface lakes and the area is covered in dense forest. In short, it's a geophysical challenge.

Nonetheless, we did collect great data; here's how:

• General information
• The ca. 600 km² Supermerge consists of a dozen 3Ds recorded over about a decade starting in 2001.
• The northern 60% or so of the dataset was recombined from field records into a single 3D volume, with pre- and post-stack time imaging.
• The merge was performed by CGG Veritas, cost nearly \$2 million, and took about 18 months.
• Geometry
• Most of the surveys had a 20 m shot and receiver spacing, giving the volume a 10 m by 10 m natural bin size
• The original survey had parallel and coincident shot and receiver lines (Megabin); later surveys were orthogonal.
• We varied the line spacing between 80 m and 160 m to get trace density we needed in different areas.
• Sources
• Some surveys used 125 g dynamite at a depth of 6 m; others the IVI EnviroVibe sweeping 8–230 Hz.
• We used an airgun on some of the lakes, but the data was terrible so we stopped doing it.
• Most of the surveys were recorded into single-point 3C digital MEMS receivers planted on the surface.
• Bandwidth
• Most of the datasets have data from about 8–10 Hz to about 180–200 Hz (and have a 1 ms sample interval).

The planning of these surveys was quite a process. Because access in the muskeg is limited to 'freeze up' (late December until March), and often curtailed by wildlife concerns (moose and elk rutting), only about 6 weeks of shooting are possible each year. This means you have to plan ahead, then mobilize a fairly large crew with as many channels as possible. After acquisition, each volume spent about 6 months in processing — mostly at Veritas and then CGG Veritas, who did fantastic work on these datasets.

Kudos to ConocoPhillips and Total for letting people work on this dataset. And kudos to Paul Durkin for this fine piece of work, and for making it open access. I'm excited to see it in the open. I hope we see more papers based on Surmont, because it may be the world's finest subsurface dataset. I hope it is released some day, it would have huge impact.

References & bibliography

Paul R. Durkin, Ron L. Boyd, Stephen M. Hubbard, Albert W. Shultz, Michael D. Blum (2017). Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Meander-Belt Evolution, Cretaceous Mcmurray Formation, Alberta Foreland Basin, Canada. Journal of Sedimentary Research 87 (10), p 1075–1099. doi: 10.2110/jsr.2017.59 (not live yet).

Hall, M (2007). Cost-effective, fit-for-purpose, lease-wide 3D seismic at Surmont. SEG Development and Production Forum, Edmonton, Canada, July 2007.

Hall, M (2009). Lithofacies prediction from seismic, one step at a time: An example from the McMurray Formation bitumen reservoir at Surmont. Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists National Convention, Calgary, Canada, May 2009. Oral paper.

Zhu, X, S Shaw, B Roy, M Hall, M Gurch, D Whitmore and P Anno (2008). Near-surface complexity masquerades as anisotropy. SEG Annual Convention, Las Vegas, USA, November 2008. Oral paper. doi: 10.1190/1.3063976.

Surmont SAGD Performance Review (2016), by ConocoPhillips and Total geoscientists and engineers. Submitted to AER, 258 pp. Available online [PDF] — and well worth looking at.

Trad, D, M Hall, and M Cotra (2008). Reshooting a survey by 5D interpolation. Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists National Convention, Calgary, Canada, May 2006. Oral paper.

Comment

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# x lines of Python: read and write CSV

A couple of weeks ago, in Murphy's Law for Excel, I wrote about the dominance of spreadsheets in applied analysis, and how they may be getting out of hand. Then in Organizing spreadsheets I wrote about how — if you are going to store data in spreadsheets — to organize your data so that you do the least amount of damage. The general goal being to make your data machine-readable. Or, to put it another way, to allow you to save your data as comma-separated values or CSV files.

CSV is the de facto standard way to store data in text files. They are human-readable, easy to parse with multiple tools, and they compress easily. So you need to know how to read and write them in your analysis tool of choice. In our case, this is the Python language. So today I present a few different ways to get at data stored in CSV files.

### How many ways can I read thee?

In the accompanying Jupyter Notebook, we read a CSV file into Python in six different ways:

1. Using the pandas data analysis library. It's the easiest way to read CSV and XLS data into your Python environment...
2. ...and can happily consume a file on the web too. Another nice thing about pandas. It also writes CSV files very easily.
3. Using the built-in csv package. There are a couple of standard ways to do this — csv.reader...
4. ...and csv.DictReader. This library is handy for when you don't have (or don't want) pandas.
5. Using numpy, the numeric library for Python. If you just have a CSV full of numbers and you want an array in the end, you can skip pandas.
6. OK, it's not really a CSV file, but for the finale we read a spreadsheet directly from Google Sheets.

I usually count my lines diligently in these posts, but not this time. With pandas you're looking at a one-liner to read your data:

df = pd.read_csv("myfile.csv")

and a one-liner to write it out again. With csv.DictReader you're looking at 3 lines to get a list of dicts (but watch out: your numbers will be strings). Reading a Google Doc is a little more involved, not least because you'll need to set up an app and get an API key to handle authentication.

That's all there is to CSV files. Go forth and wield data like a pro!

Next time in the xlines of Python series we'll look at reading seismic station data from the web, and doing a bit of time-series analysis on it. No more stuff about spreadsheets and CSV files, I promise :)

The thumbnail image is based on the possibly apocryphal banksy image of an armed panda, and one of texturepalace.com's CC-BY textures.

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

A couple of weeks ago I alluded to ill-formed spreadsheets in my post Murphy's Law for Excel. Spreadsheets are clearly indispensable, and are definitely great for storing data and checking CSV files. But some spreadsheets need to die a horrible death. I'm talking about spreadsheets that look like this (click here for the entire sheet):

This spreadsheet has several problems. Among them:

• The position of a piece of data changes how I interpret it. E.g. a blank row means 'new sheet' or 'new well'.
• The cells contain a mixture of information (e.g. 'Site' and the actual data) and appear in varying units.
• Some information is encoded by styles (e.g. using red to denote a mineral species). If you store your sheet as a CSV (which you should), this information will be lost.
• Columns are hidden, there are footnotes, it's just a bit gross.

Using this spreadsheet to make plots, or reading it with software, with be a horrible experience. I will probably swear at my computer, suffer a repetitive strain injury, and go home early with a headache, cursing the muppet that made the spreadsheet in the first place. (Admittedly, I am the muppet that made this spreadsheet in this case, but I promise I did not invent these pathologies. I have seen them all.)

### Let's make the world a better place

Consider making separate sheets for the following:

• Raw data. This is important. See below.
• Computed columns. There may be good reasons to keep these with the data.
• Charts.
• 'Tabulated' data, like my bad spreadsheet above, with tables meant for summarization or printing.
• Some metadata, either in the file properties or a separate sheet. Explain the purpose of the dataset, any major sources, important assumptions, and your contact details.
• A rich description of each column, with its caveats and assumptions.

The all-important data sheet has its own special requirements. Here's my guide for a pain-free experience:

• No computed fields or plots in the data sheet.
• No hidden columns.
• No semantic meaning in formatting (e.g. highlighting cells or bolding values).
• Headers in the first row, only data in all the other rows.
• The column headers should contain only a unique name and [units], e.g. Depth [m], Porosity [v/v].
• Only one type of data per column: text OR numbers, discrete categories OR continuous scalars.
• No units in numeric data cells, only quantities. Record depth as 500, not 500 m.
• Avoid keys or abbreviations: use Sandstone, Limestone, Shale, not Ss, Ls, Sh.
• Zero means zero, empty cell means no data.
• Only one unit per column. (You only use SI units right?)
• Attribution! Include a citation or citations for every record.
• If you have two distinct types or sources of data, e.g. grain size from sieve analysis and grain size from photomicrographs, then use two different columns.
• Personally, I like the data sheet to be the first sheet in the file, but maybe that's just me.
• Check that it turns into a valid CSV so you can use this awesome format.

After all that, here's what we have (click here for the entire sheet):

The same data as the first image, but improved. The long strings in columns 3 and 4 are troublesome, but we can tolerate them. Click to enlarge.

Maybe the 'clean' analysis-friendly sheet looks boring to you, but to me it looks awesome. Above all, it's easy to use for SCIENCE! And I won't have to go home with a headache.

The data in this post came from this Cretaceous shale dataset [XLS file] from the government of Manitoba. Their spreadsheet is pretty good and only breaks a couple of my golden rules. Here's my version with the broken and fixed spreadsheets shown here. Let me know if you spot something else that should be fixed!

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# Well data woes

I probably shouldn't be telling you this, but we've built a little tool for wrangling well data. I wanted to mention it, becase it's doing some really useful things for us — and maybe it can help you too. But I probably shouldn't because it's far from stable and we're messing with it every day.

But hey, what software doesn't have a few or several or loads of bugs?

### Buggy data?

It's not just software that's buggy. Data is as buggy as heck, and subsurface data is, I assert, the buggiest data of all. Give units or datums or coordinate reference systems or filenames or standards or basically anything at all a chance to get corrupted in cryptic ways, and they take it. Twice if possible.

By way of example, we got a package of 10 wells recently. It came from a "data management" company. There are issues... Here are some of them:

• All of the latitude and longitude data were in the wrong header fields. No coordinate reference system in sight anywhere. This is normal of course, and the only real side-effect is that YOU HAVE NO IDEA WHERE THE WELL IS.
• Header chaos aside, the files were non-standard LAS sort-of-2.0 format, because tops had been added in their own little completely illegal section. But the LAS specification has a section for stuff like this (it's called OTHER in LAS 2.0).
• Half the porosity curves had units of v/v, and half %. No big deal...
• ...but a different half of the porosity curves were actually v/v. Nice.
• One of the porosity curves couldn't make its mind up and changed scale halfway down. I am not making this up.
• Several of the curves were repeated with other names, e.g. GR and GAM, DT and AC. Always good to have a spare, if only you knew if or how they were different. Our tool curvenam.es tries to help with this, but it's far from perfect.
• One well's RHOB curve was actually the PEF curve. I can't even...

The remarkable thing is not really that I have this headache. It's that I expected it. But this time, I was out of paracetamol.

### Cards on the table

Our tool welly, which I stress is very much still in development, tries to simplify the process of wrangling data like this. It has a project object for collecting a lot of wells into a single data structure, so we can get a nice overview of everything:

Click to enlarge.

Our goal is to include these curves in the training data for a machine learning task to predict lithology from well logs. The trained model can make really good lithology predictions... if we start with non-terrible data. Next time I'll tell you more about how welly has been helping us get from this chaos to non-terrible data.

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# x lines of Python: read and write SEG-Y

Reading SEG-Y files comes up a lot in the geophysicist's workflow. Writing, less often, but it does come up occasionally. As long as we're mostly concerned with trace data and not location, both of these tasks can be fairly easily accomplished with ObsPy.

Today we'll load some seismic, compute an attribute on it, and save a new SEG-Y, in 10 lines of Python.

ObsPy is a rare thing. It demonstrates what a research group can accomplish with a little planning and a lot of perseverance (cf my whinging earlier this year about certain consortiums in our field). It's an open source Python package from the geophysicists at the University of Munich — Karl Bernhard Zoeppritz studied there for a while, so you know it's legit. The tool serves their research in earthquake and global seismology needs, and also happens to handle SEG-Y files quite nicely.

Aside: I think SixtyNorth's segpy is actually the way to go for reading and writing SEG-Y; ObsPy is probably overkill for most applications — it's about 80 times the size for one thing. I just happen to be familiar with it and it's super easy to install: conda install obspy. So, since minimalism is kind of the point here, look out for a future x lines of Python using that library.

### The sentences

As before, we'd like to express the process in just a few sentences of plain English. Assuming we just want to read the data into a NumPy array, look at it, do something to it, and write a new file, here's what we're doing:

1. Read (or really index) the file as an ObsPy Stream object.
2. Stack (in the NumPy sense) the Trace objects into a single NumPy array. We have data!
3. Get the 99th percentile of the amplitudes to make plotting easier.
4. Plot the data so we can see it.
5. Get the sample interval of the data from a trace header.
6. Compute the similarity attribute using our library bruges.
7. Make a new Stream object to hold the outbound data.
10. Write a new SEG-Y file with our computed data in it!

There's a bit more in the Jupyter Notebook (examining the file and trace headers, for example, and a few more plots) which, remember, you can run right in your browser! You don't need to install a thing. Please give it a look! Quick tip: Just keep hitting Shift+Enter to run the cells.

If you like this sort of thing, and are planning to be at the SEG Annual Meeting in Dallas next month, you might like to know that we'll be teaching our Creative Geocomputing class there. It's basically two days of this sort of thing, only with friends to learn with and us to help. Come and learn some new skills!

The seismic data used in this post is from the NPRA seismic repository of the USGS. The data is in the public domain.

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# The big data eye-roll

First, let's agree on one thing: 'big data' is a half-empty buzzword. It's shorthand for 'more data than you can look at', but really it's more than that: it branches off into other hazy territory like 'data science', 'analytics', 'deep learning', and 'machine intelligence'. In other words, it's not just 'large data'.

Anyway, the buzzword doesn't bother me too much. What bothers me is when I talk to people at geoscience conferences about 'big data', about half of them roll their eyes and proclaim something like this: "Big data? We've been doing big data since before these punks were born. Don't talk to me about big data."

This is pretty demonstrably a load of rubbish.

What the 'big data' movement is trying to do is not acquire loads of data then throw 99% of it away. They are not processing it in a purely serial pipeline, making arbitrary decisions about parameters on the way. They are not losing most of it in farcical enterprise data management train-wrecks. They are not locking most of their data up in such closed systems that even they don't know they have it.

They are doing the opposite of all of these things.

If you think 'big data', 'data' science' and 'machine learning' are old hat in geophysics, then you have some catching up to do. Sure, we've been toying with simple neural networks for years, eg probabilistic neural nets with 1 hidden layer — though this approach is very, very far from being mainstream in subsurface — but today this is child's play. Over and over, and increasingly so in the last 3 years, people are showing how new technology — built specifically to handle the special challenge that terabytes bring — can transform any quantitative endeavour: social media and online shopping, sure, but also astronomy, robotics, weather prediction, and transportation. These technologies will show up in petroleum geoscience and engineering. They will eat geostatistics for breakfast. They will change interpretation.

So when you read that Google has open sourced its TensorFlow deep learning library (9 November), or that Microsoft has too (yesterday), or that Facebook has too (months ago), or that Airbnb has too (in August), or that there are a bazillion other super easy-to-use packages out there for sophisticated statistical learning, you should pay a whole heap of attention! Because machine learning is coming to subsurface.

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# Rock property catalog

One of the first things I do on a new play is to start building a Big Giant Spreadsheet. What goes in the big giant spreadsheet? Everything — XRD results, petrography, geochemistry, curve values, elastic parameters, core photo attributes (e.g. RGB triples), and so on. If you're working in the Athabasca or the Eagle Ford then one thing you have is heaps of wells. So the spreadsheet is Big. And Giant.

But other people's spreadsheets are hard to use. There's no documentation, no references. And how to share them? Email just generates obsolete duplicates and data chaos. And while XLS files are not hard to put on the intranet or Internet,  it's hard to do it in a way that doesn't involve asking people to download the entire spreadsheet — duplicates again. So spreadsheets are not the best choice for collaboration or open science. But wikis might be...

### The wiki as database

Regular readers will know that I'm a big fan of MediaWiki. One of the most interesting extensions for the software is Semantic MediaWiki (SMW), which essentially turns a wiki into a database — I've written about it before. Of course we can read any wiki page over the web, but you can query an SMW-powered wiki, which means you can, for example, ask for the elastic properties of a rock, such as this Mesaverde sandstone from Thomsen (1986). And the wiki will send you this JSON string:

{u'exists': True,
u'fulltext': u'Mesaverde immature sandstone 3 (Kelly 1983)',
u'fullurl': u'http://subsurfwiki.org/wiki/Mesaverde_immature_sandstone_3_(Kelly_1983)',
u'namespace': 0,
u'printouts': {
u'Lithology': [{u'exists': True,
u'fulltext': u'Sandstone',
u'fullurl': u'http://www.subsurfwiki.org/wiki/Sandstone',
u'namespace': 0}],
u'Delta': [0.148],
u'Epsilon': [0.091],
u'Rho': [{u'unit': u'kg/m\xb3', u'value': 2460}],
u'Vp': [{u'unit': u'm/s', u'value': 4349}],
u'Vs': [{u'unit': u'm/s', u'value': 2571}]
}
}

This might look horrendous at first, or even at last, but it's actually perfectly legible to Python. A little bit of data wrangling and we end up with data we can easily plot. It takes no more than a few lines of code to read the wiki's data, and construct this plot of $$V_\text{P}$$ vs $$V_\text{S}$$ for all the rocks I have so far put in the wiki — grouped by gross lithology:

A page from the Rock Property Catalog in Subsurfwiki.org. Very much an experiment, rocks contain only a few key properties today.

If you're interested in seeing how to make these queries, have a look at this IPython Notebook. It takes you through reading the data from my embryonic catalogue on Subsurfwiki, processing the JSON response from the wiki, and making the plot. Once you see how easy it is, I hope you can imagine a day when people are publishing open data on the web, and sharing tools to query and visualize it.

Imagine it, then figure out how you can help build it!

References

Thomsen, L (1986). Weak elastic anisotropy. Geophysics 51 (10), 1954–1966. DOI 10.1190/1.1442051.

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# 10 ways to improve your data store

When I look at the industry's struggle with the data mess, I see a parallel with science's struggle with open data. I've written lots about that before, but the basic idea is simple: scientists need discoverable, accessible, documented, usable data. Does that sound familiar?

I wrote yesterday that I think we have to get away from the idea that we can manage data like we might manage a production line. Instead, we need to think about more organic, flexible strategies that cope with and even thrive on chaos. I like, or liked until yesterday, the word 'curation', because it implies ongoing care and a focus on the future. But my friend Eric Marchand was right in his comment yesterday — the dusty connotation is too strong, and dust is bad for data. I like his supermarket analogy: packaged, categorized items, each with a cost of production and a price. A more lively, slightly chaotic market might match my vision better — multiple vendors maintaining their own realms. One can get carried away with analogies, but I like this better than a library or museum.

The good news is that lots of energetic and cunning people have been working on this idea of open data markets. So there are plenty of strategies we can try, alongside the current strategy of giving giant service companies millions of dollars for their TechCloud® Integrated ProSIGHT™ Data Management Solutions.

• Above all else, build what people need. It's amazing that this needs to be said, but ask almost anyone what they think of IT at their company and you will know that it is not how it works today. Everything you build should be in response to the business pulling.
• This means you have to get out of the building and talk to your customers. In person, one-one-one. Watch them use your systems. Listen to them. Respond to them.

Knock down the data walls:

• Learn and implement open data practices inside the organization. Focus on discoverability, accessiblity, documentation of good-enough data, not on building The One True Database.
• Encourage and fund open data practices among providers of public data. There is a big role here for our technical societies, I believe, but I don't think they have seen it yet.

I've said it before: hire loads of geeks:

• The web (well, intranet) is your pipeline. Build and maintain proper machine interfaces (APIs and web APIs) for data. What, you don't know how to do this? I know; it means hiring web-savvy data-obsessed programmers.
• Bring back the hacker technologists that I think I remember from the nineties. Maybe it's a myth memory, but sprinkled around big companies there used to be super-geeks with degrees in astrophysics, mad UNIX skills, and the Oracle admin password. Now it's all data managers with Petroleum Technology certificates who couldn't write an awk script if your data depended on it (it does).
• Institute proper data wrangling and analysis training for scientists. I think this is pretty urgent. Anecdotal evidence: the top data integration tools in our business is PowerPoint... or an Excel chart with two y-axes if we're talking about engineers. (What does E&P mean?)

Three more things:

• Let data live where it wants to live (databases, spreadsheets, wikis, SharePoint if you must). Focus on connecting data with APIs and data translators. It's pointless trying to move data to where you want it to be — you're just making it worse. ("Oh, you moved my spreadsheet? Fine, I will copy my spreadsheet.")
• Get out of the company and find out what other people are doing. Not the other industry people struggling with data — they are just as clueless as we are. Find out what the people who are doing amazing things with data are doing: Google, Twitter, Facebook, data.gov, Wikipedia, Digital Science, The New York Times, The Guardian,... there are so many to choose from. We should invite these people to our conferences; they can help us.
• If you only do one thing, fix search in your company. Stop tinkering with semantic ontologies and smart catalogs, just buy Google Search Appliance and fix it. You can get this one done by Christmas.

Last thing. If there's one mindset that will really get in the way, it's the project mindset. If we want to go beyond coping with the data mess, far beyond it to thriving on it, then we have to get comfortable with the idea that this is not a project. The word is banned, along with 'initiative', 'governance', and Gantt charts. The requirements you write on the back of a napkin with three colleagues will be just as useful as the ones you get back from three months of focus groups.

No, this is the rest of your career. This is never done, next year there are better ideas, more flexible libraries, faster hardware, and new needs. It's like getting fit: this ain't an 8-week get-fit program, it's an eternity of crunches.

The photograph of Covent Market in London, Ontario is from Boris Kasimov on Flickr.

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# Data management fairy tales

On Tuesday I read this refreshing post in LinkedIn by Jeffrey Maskell of Westheimer Energy Consultants. It's a pretty damning assessment of the current state of data management in the petroleum industry:

The fact is that no major technology advances have been seen in the DM sector for some 20 years. The [data management] gap between acquisition and processing/interpretation is now a void and is impacting the industry across the board...

I agree with him. But I don't think he goes far enough on the subject of what we should do about it. Maskell is, I believe, advocating more effort (and more budget) developing what the data management crowd have been pushing for years. In a nutshell:

I agree that standards, process, procedures, workflows, data models are all important; I also agree that DM certification is a long term desirable outcome.

These words make me sad. I'd go so far as to say that it's the pursuit of these mythical ideas that's brought about today's pitiful scene. If you need proof, just look around you. Go look at your shared drive. Go ask someone for a well file. Go and (a) find then (b) read your IT policies and workflow documents — they're all fairy tales.

Maskell acknowledges at least that these are not enough; he goes on:

However I believe the KEY to achieving a breakthrough is to prove positively that data management can make a difference and that the cost of good quality data management is but a very small price to pay...

No, the key to achieving a breakthrough is a change of plan. Another value of information study just adds to the misery.

Here's what I think: 'data management' is an impossible fiction. A fairy tale.

### You can't manage data

I'm talking to you, big-company-data-management-person.

Data is a mess, and it's distributed across your organization (and your partners, and your government, and your data vendors), and it's full of inconsistencies, and people store local copies of everything because of your broken SharePoint permissions, and... data is a mess.

The terrible truth you're fighting is that subsurface data wants to be a mess. Subsurface geoscience is not accounting. It's multi-dimensional. It's interdependent. Some of it is analog. There are dozens, maybe hundreds of formats, many of which are proprietary. Every single thing is unquantifiably uncertain. There are dozens of units. Interpretation generates more data, often iteratively. Your organization won't fund anything to do with IT properly — "We're an oil company, not a technology company!" — but it's OK because VPs only last 2 years. Well, subsurface facts last for decades.

### You can't manage data. Try something else.

The principle here is: cope don't fix.

People earnestly trying to manage data reminds me of Yahoo trying to catalog the Internet in 1995. Bizarrely, they're still doing it... for 3 more months anyway. But we all know there's only one way to find things on the web today: search. Search transcends the catalog.

So what transcends data management? I've got my own ideas, but first I really, really want to know what you think. What's one thing we could do — or stop doing — to make things a bit better?

### Matt Hall

Matt is a geoscientist in Nova Scotia, Canada. Founder of Agile Scientific, co-founder of The HUB South Shore. Matt is into geology, geophysics, and machine learning.

# Slicing seismic arrays

Scientific computing is largely made up of doing linear algebra on matrices, and then visualizing those matrices for their patterns and signals. It's a fundamental concept, and there is no better example than a 3D seismic volume.

### Seeing in geoscience, literally

Digital seismic data is nothing but an array of numbers, decorated with header information, sorted and processed along different dimensions depending on the application.

In Python, you can index into any sequence, whether it be a string, list, or array of numbers. For example, we can index into the fourth character (counting from 0) of the word 'geoscience' to select the letter 's':

>>> word = 'geosciences'
>>> word[3]
's'

Or, we can slice the string with the syntax word[start:end:step] to produce a sub-sequence of characters. Note also how we can index backwards with negative numbers, or skip indices to use defaults:

>>> word[3:-1]  # From the 4th character to the penultimate character.
'science'
>>> word[3::2]  # Every other character from the 4th to the end.
'sine'

### Seismic data is a matrix

In exactly the same way, we index into a multi-dimensional array in order to select a subset of elements. Slicing and indexing is a cinch using the numerical library NumPy for crunching numbers. Let's look at an example... if data is a 3D array of seismic amplitudes:

timeslice = data[:,:,122] # The 122nd element from the third dimension.
inline = data[30,:,:]     # The 30th element from the first dimension.
crossline = data[:,60,:]  # The 60th element from the second dimension.

Here we have sliced all of the inlines and crosslines at a specific travel time index, to yield a time slice (left). We have sliced all the crossline traces along an inline (middle), and we have sliced the inline traces along a single crossline (right). There's no reason for the slices to remain orthogonal however, and we could, if we wished, index through the multi-dimensional array and extract an arbitrary combination of all three.

Questions involving well logs (a 1D matrix), cross sections (2D), and geomodels (3D) can all be addressed with the rigours of linear algebra and digital signal processing. An essential step in working with your data is treating it as arrays.

View the notebook for this example, or get the get the notebook from GitHub and play with around with the code.